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In the world of the future, they tell us, every car will be autonomous. In this world, traffic lights will be as useless as an umbrella in the Sahara, and no one will ever crash, just like your computer, which has never crashed even once, I’m sure.
The only problem with that utopian vision of commuting in cars able to communicate with each other so perfectly that breakneck speeds will be achieved with no fear of breaking necks is that the people building the system can’t even communicate clearly yet.
Audi is here to help, though. Working together with city governments, businesses, and scientific institutions, the automaker has come up with a dictionary defining more than 200 automotive terms.
The words are defined in a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) publication, excitingly named “DIN SPEC 91340—Terminology of Intelligent Individual Urban Mobility.”
So what exactly is “intelligent infrastructure” or “piloted parking?” Now there’s an answer.
Intelligent Infrastructure is a “System structure that is significantly managed by automated control processes and highly developed data analysis and that independently acts and operates to network and control facilities, systems, devices, equipment, and conditions.”
Piloted parking, on the other hand, means “Parking a vehicle with the help of driver assistance systems EXAMPLE For the different defined automation levels: Level 1 (assisted parking): Parking steering assist system Level 2 (party automated parking): Remotely controlled and monitored parking Level 3 (fully automated parking): Driverless parking (driverless valet parking).”
And because I can’t think of a compelling reason not to add them, there are 28 more examples below. The full 200-word “DIN SPEC 91340—Terminology of Intelligent Individual Urban Mobility” can be ordered from Beuth Verlag.
3.9 Automated driving
Operating a vehicle with the gradual aid of assistance systems.
Note 1 regarding the term: “Automated driving” has various automation levels: Level 0: Driving without any automated driving functions (“No Automation”) Level 1: Assisted driving (“Driver Assistance”) Level 2: Partly automated driving (“Partial Automation”) Level 3: Highly automated driving (“Conditional Automation”) Level 4: Fully automated driving (“High Automation”) Level 5: Driverless driving (“Full Automation”)
[SOURCE: SAE J3016:2014-01, modified – definition translated]
3.10 Automated vehicle
Vehicle that is equipped with sensors and actuators and that acquires information from the environment, processes it in electronic control units, and, in certain situations, is able to select a specific behavior from multiple options in a manner that has been appropriately calibrated.
Note 1 regarding the term: Accordingly, these vehicles actively assist drivers during driving or drive themselves through a road network.
3.11 Automated parking
Parking a vehicle with the help of driver assistance systems EXAMPLE For the different defined automation levels: Level 1 (assisted parking): Parking steering assist system Level 2 (party automated parking): Remotely controlled and monitored parking Level 3 (fully automated parking): Driverless parking (driverless valet parking)
Note 1 regarding the term: “Automated parking” has various automation levels: Level 0: Parking without automated driving function Level 1: Assisted parking Level 2: Partly automated parking Level 3: Fully automated parking
3.17 Car sharing
The sequential use of motor vehicles that are used for short periods and with the use of a standardized procedure, with this sequential use being organized as a shared mobility offering Note 1 regarding the term: In a car sharing context, vehicle pickups and returns can be organized in a station-based or station-independent manner.
“Station-based car sharing” can work both as “return car sharing” (“round-trip car sharing”) and as “one-way car sharing.” In both of these, the vehicles are picked up from dedicated parking spaces for temporary use and are then parked in dedicated parking spaces after this use.
In “return car sharing,” once the user is done using the vehicle, they park it at the same location where they picked it up. In “one-way car sharing,” once the rental ends, the vehicle can also be parked in a dedicated parking space other than the one from where it was picked up. The second case is named “station-independent car sharing” or “free-floating car sharing.” In this case, the vehicles are picked up from and returned to any permissible parking space on public roads and on explicitly defined additional parking spaces within an area or a group of spatially separate areas. Note 2 regarding the term: “Car sharing” is distinct from “car rental.”
3.18 Car-2-car communications
Car-to-car communications Data exchange between motor vehicles
3.19 Car-2-x communications
Car-to-x communications Data exchange between a motor vehicle with other vehicles, with infrastructure, or with IT applications
Note 1 regarding the term: Within the context of traffic technology, traffic infrastructure is usually meant here (e.g., road traffic signal system, parking garages, traffic flow data servers, traffic control centers).
Note 2 regarding the term: There are several popular abbreviations within this context: “I” = “infrastructure,” “R” = “rail,” “V” = “vehicle.”
The networking capability of electronic information and communication technologies
Note 1 regarding the term: Encompasses the ability to have data and information be exchanged between various electronic devices.
Note 2 regarding the term: Data is transmitted wirelessly or in a wired manner, in packet-switched or circuit-switched services, with standardized data transfer protocols.
Note 3 regarding the term: “Connectivity” is frequently also used to refer to network connection quality.
3.25 Demand-responsive transportation
DRT System of transportation offerings and transportation services in which their provision is adjusted as per the needs formulated by individual users Example Taxis, ride hailing, dial-a-ride, or medical transportation.
Note 1 regarding the term: Demand-responsive transportation offerings can be part of the offerings that make up local public transportation
Note 2 regarding the term: Demand-responsive transportation offerings can be created by making route-based and schedule-based offerings either fully or partially flexible.
3.26 Digital infrastructure
Technical equipment and facilities that ensure the generation, processing, propagation, and retrieval of digital data
Note 1 regarding the term: An essential component consists of broadband and wireless networks for fast data transmission.
Note 2 regarding the term: The collection, processing, and forwarding of data that can be acquired in public spaces will increase considerably. It will be used, among other things, for the future mobility management of cities.
3.27 Drop-off area
Area reserved for vehicles that are stopping briefly in order to drop off passengers.
Note 1 regarding the term: A drop-off area is not the same as a “cargo handling area.”
Note 2 regarding the term: During the transition from partially automated to fully automated vehicle systems, “drop-off areas” and “loading and unloading zones” will be especially important.
3.29 Dynamic ride sharing
Ride sharing in which a ride sharing trip is assigned and booked at a point in time that is very close to the possible start of the trip. Note 1 regarding the term: Subcategory of ride sharing in which a highly developed technology that makes it possible to precisely match ride sharing supply and demand is used. This subcategory also includes subsegments of trips that are already ongoing at the time of assignment.
3.38 Driverless driving
Driving in which the automated system takes over all driving tasks on all road types and under all environmental conditions during the entire trip.
Note 1 regarding the term: The vehicle takes over all driving tasks completely from the start and all the way to the destination.
Note 2 regarding the term: All the people in the vehicle are passengers. [SOURCE: SAE J3016:2014-01, modified – definition translated]
Group of people who share a vehicle on a regular basis in order to cover a common distance.
Note 1 regarding the term: The general conditions are agreed upon by the people involved in advance.
Note 2 regarding the term: The people involved can switch from being a driver to being a passenger and vice versa.
Note 3 regarding the term: In certain regulations, this term may be defined in a more specific manner.
3.59 Highly automated driving
Driving in which the automated system takes over all functions in order to fulfill the driving task in specific use cases, but in which the driver must always be able to take back control of the driving task within a specific time reserve after being prompted to do so by the system. [SOURCE: SAE J3016:2014-01, modified – definition translated]
<Traffic>Transfer point between traffic connections for one or more means of transportation
Note 1 regarding the term: A hub makes a significant contribution to direct transfers (passengers) or transshipping (goods) from various incoming destinations to various outgoing destinations that do not have the hub’s location itself as a starting or destination point.
Note 2 regarding the term: The term “hub” is an English term.
3.61 Human Machine Interface HMI
Interface that people use in order to enter and receive information that needs to undergo machine processing
Note 1 regarding the term: See the term “interface” as well.
3.68 Informal transportation
Transportation offering that is available to the public and that is not part of officially authorized (formal) public transportation offerings, but is instead offered by the private sector as a way to tap into a potential market.
Note 1 regarding the term: In real life, there are not only informal transportation offerings of a legal character, but also offerings that do not comply with regulations.
Note 2 regarding the term: Informal transportation offerings can complement or compete with licensed transportation offerings.
Note 3 regarding the term: Informal transportation offerings often focus on niche markets and are frequently organized on a small scale.
Note 4 regarding the term: In developing and emerging economies, informal transportation offerings often provide the services that dysfunctional or nonexistent formal transportation offerings are unable to provide properly.
Note 5 regarding the term: New informal transportation offerings arising as part of the digital economy can be planned and structured centrally and, with significant amounts of venture capital, can be simultaneously rolled out in various geographic markets. [SOURCE: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat), Informal Transport in the Developing World: 2000, modified – definition translated and shortened]
3.74 Intelligent system
A system that is automated to a very large degree and that has comprehensive input variables and a complex control logic.
Note 1 regarding the term: From the Latin “intelligens”: Understanding, judicious.
Note 2 regarding the term: Within this context, the term “intelligent” is used both for technical and organizational units.
Note 3 regarding the term: The term “intelligent” is not synonymous with the term “smart.”
3.75 Intelligent infrastructure
System structure that is significantly managed by automated control processes and highly developed data analysis and that independently acts and operates to network and control facilities, systems, devices, equipment, and conditions
Note 1 regarding the term: The exchange of information from management and control equipment and from the associated sensors is used in order to determine or anticipate the behavior of road users and other actors and to ensure sustainable, cost-effective and safe mobility that is compatible with urban settings
Note 2 regarding the term: Within this context, and taken in as broad a sense as possible, the term “infrastructure” includes, e.g., road traffic signal systems, sensors, (traffic) information systems, (traffic) control systems, and data networks.
3.83 Last mile
Section of a utility grid, telecommunications network, or route chain that directly connects customers or users
Note 1 regarding the term: The term is used not only in traffic planning and distribution logistics, but also in the power and communications industries.
Note 2 regarding the term: Last-mile transportation in urban center areas is especially relevant to infrastructure and logistics.
Note 3 regarding the term: The term “last mile” comes from the logistics sector and is becoming increasingly relevant to the field of individual mobility.
Note 4 regarding the term: The term “last mile” is not identical to the terms “micromobility” or “local mobility.”
Person who uses services and infrastructure for a specific purpose
Note 1 regarding the term: Within the context of urban mobility, “users” are people who use transportation infrastructure in order to move themselves, other people, or goods from one location to another.
Note 2 regarding the term: In terms of road traffic regulations and of the Personenbeförderungsgesetz (German Passenger Transportation Act), animals are considered goods.
Note 3 regarding the term: Within the context of local public transportation, the term refers to passengers who use the offered service, vehicles, or infrastructure subsystems.
Note 4 regarding the term: Within the context of private transportation, the term refers to people who participate in public road traffic as pedestrians or by using a vehicle.
Person who is transported in a vehicle without being involved in the latter’s operation
Note 1 regarding the term: Being the only person who issues a command to depart, or actively selecting and entering a destination on or in a vehicle, has no bearing on the status of a passenger.
Note 2 regarding the term: There are two German terms that roughly mean “passenger”: “Mitfahrer” and “Passagier.” While these two terms are sometimes used synonymously, “Passagier” usually refers to a passenger on a commercial passenger transportation offering. [Source: DIN EN 16258:2013-03, 2.1.15, modified – notes 1 and 2 added]
3.141 Ride hailing
Transportation of a passenger or small group with a vehicle, called up for a specific trip request, from a commercial platform provider without a taxi license
Note 1 regarding the term: Synonyms include “transportation network companies” (TNC) as performing organizations, “ride booking,” “ride sourcing,” and “e-hailing.”
Note 2 regarding the term: Trips are generated for each individual passenger. Options for grouping trips (pooling) that are declared as such are exceptions.
Note 3 regarding the term: “Rise sourcing” must be distinguished from “ride sharing.”
3.142 Ride pooling
Grouping of the transportation needs of individual people on routes that are identical to a large extent with the use of vehicles that are not part of local public transportation. Note 1 regarding the term: As an umbrella term, “ride pooling” can include both offerings from carsharing agencies and carpools and from “ride sourcing.” Note 2 regarding the term: In some “ride sourcing” offerings, “ride pooling” is explicitly offered as a separate product that can be chosen. The common incentive is the lower fare per passenger that results when a vehicle is shared with other passengers.
3.143 Ride sharing
Taking passengers on a trip, made by a private transportation vehicle, that is non-commercial and that would occur regardless.
Note 1 regarding the term: There is no trip generation.
Note 2 regarding the term: “Ride sharing” must be distinguished from “ride sourcing.”
Note 3 regarding the term: It is possible for passengers to pay for the variable costs incurred by the vehicle owner by a percentage up to the proportional amount that corresponds to them without this changing the fact that the offering is essentially non-commercial.
Note 4 regarding the term: “Ride sharing” has existed in an organized form since the 1950s in the form of carsharing agencies, carpools, and organized informal carpools in which passengers with the same destination are picked up at defined locations (“slugging”).
3.146 Mass location data
Data acquired by a group or object(s) so that it can be centrally aggregated, processed, or refined and then used in order to efficiently optimize a system
Skilled in handling problems and finding solutions
Note 1 regarding the term: The term is frequently used within the context of digitalization in order to describe a higher level of applicability, efficiency, and range of equipment, tools, or processes achieved with the help of digital measurement, analysis, and transmission functions.
Note 2 regarding the term: The term “smart” is not synonymous with the term “intelligent.”
3.176 Over-the-air update
Update to a product’s software via wireless data transmission
3.199 Fully automated driving
Driving in which the automated system takes over all functions in order to fulfill the driving task and is able to automatically manage all situations in specific use cases even if the driver is unable to take back control of the driving task within a specific time reserve after being prompted to do so by the system
Note 1 regarding the term: In specific use cases that go beyond the capabilities of the system, assistance by a human driver may be required. [SOURCE: SAE J3016:2014-01, modified – definition translated, note added]